Are Republican factions facing irreconcilable differences?

"I think it's obvious that we are now seeing the end of this agonizing odyssey that this body has been put through," Sen. John McCain (R-Ariz.) said in one floor speech. "It's one of the more shameful chapters that I have seen in the years that I have spent here in the Senate."

Cruz choose to denounce the bill ending the shutdown at the same time his party's Senate leader, Mitch McConnell (R-Ky.), joined Senate Majority Leader Harry Reid (D-Nev.) on the Senate floor to announce it.

Cruz later used his final speech before the Senate's vote on the Reid-McConnell compromise to criticize fellow Republican senators for not having supported the anti-Obamacare effort more strongly.

"If all 46 Senate Republicans had stood together and simply supported House Republicans" in their votes to block the healthcare bill, "this result, I believe would have been very, very different," he said.

Meanwhile, McConnell's opponent in a GOP primary next May , Matt Bevin, sought to use the moment for his political advantage.

"When the stakes are highest, Mitch McConnell can always be counted on to sell out conservatives," he said in a statement. "McConnell just negotiated the GOP surrender."

The shutdown, which polls show Americans blamed on Republicans, appears to have widened the rift between moderates and conservatives not only in Washington, but throughout the country.

A new Pew Research Center poll showed that among those identifying themselves as moderate Republicans, views of the tea party movement have soured, dropping from 46% favorable in June to just 27% this month.

Within the GOP, the tea party is seen as an independent political movement. Among those who identify with the tea party, just 41% say it is part of the Republican Party, while 52% see it as "separate and independent." Just more than one-quarter of non-tea-party Republicans see the movement as part of the GOP.

That dynamic could manifest itself soon, as lawmakers face the first round of primary elections next March.

The most powerful conservative advocacy groups —Heritage Action and the Club For Growth — on Wednesday urged Republicans to vote against the compromise plan and warned that the vote would be a factor in whether they support incumbent Republicans or back challenges from more conservative opponents.

House leaders have been repeatedly thwarted when those groups lobby against them.

Salmon, however, said the party would be able to unite again — "because we have to."

"When all sides see that you're actually willing to stand and fight on principle, it changes the dynamics.," he said. "It's not evident right now but I think it will be."